Connectors as coordinators

You will study Connectors as coordinators.


Connectors as coordinators

Prehistoric Sudan

Instructions: Read the text. Look at the underlined words.

By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the next centuries become the Kingdom of Kusch (with the capital at Kerma) at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.

Sudan. Retrieved July, 2017 from

Getting started: Kingdom of Kush

Instructions: Read the text to do the activity suggested.

The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and the Nile River. It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase.

After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eight century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.

The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria. Sennacherib’s successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony, however king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, made a final determined attempt to regain Egypt. Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent a large army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani, ending all hopes of revival of the Nubian Empire.

Sudan. Retrieved July, 2017 from

A mass exchange of species

Instructions: Match the two halves of the sentences.

a. after the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt.

b. Egypt which became an Assyrian colony.

c. all hopes of revival of the Nubian Empire.

d. an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile.

e. as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century.

  1. The Kingdom of Kush was
  2. It was established
  3. The Kushite kings ruled
  4. Sennacherib’s successor Esarhaddon invaded
  5. Ashurbanipal ended
done Check

Let’s study connectors as coordinators

Instructions: Read the following information about connectors as coordinators.

As a coordinator, a connector:

  • a. Expresses a meaning of addition (for example, for instance, such as, more over, furthermore, besides, in addition to, apart from, except for), contrast or option.
  • b. Functions as a marker that coordinates like (same kind or equal) elements or structures (two noun phrases, verb phrases, or clauses).
  • c. Takes form as and (addition), but (contrast), or (option, alternative). Some grammar descriptions include for (reason), so (result), yet (concession).

Christianity and Islam

Instructions: Write “and” or “however” in the following gaps.

By the 6th century, three states had emerged as the political cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom. Nobatia, Muqurra, and Alawa. A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching Christianity about 540 AD. The Nubian kings became Monophysite Christians. , Makuria was a Melkite Christian, unlike Nobatia and Alodia.

Islam progressed in the area over a long period of time through intermarriage contacts with Arab merchants, Sufi ascetics and settlers. In 1093, a Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascended the throne of Dunqulah as king. Today's northern Sudanese culture often combines Nubian and Arabic elements.

done Check


Turkiyah and Mahdist Sudan

Instructions: Make sentences with the following words:

sought to add Sudan Muhammad Ali incorporate it into Egypt and subsequently In 1821, to his domains,
occupied Egypt was left in the hands In 1882, The British and Sudanof the Khedivial government.
In the 1890s, claims had converged British, French and Belgianat the Nile headwaters
to establish control ApartBritain wanted over the Nile from political considerations,


The British policy

Instructions: Fill in the gaps with the appropriate connector.

thereafter, and, as, and, yet.

From 1924 until independence in 1956, the British had a policy of running Sudan as two essentially separate territories, the north south. The assassination of a Governor-General of Khartoum in Cairo was the causative factor; it brought demands of the newly elected Wafd government from colonial forces. A permanent establishment of two battalions in Khartoum was renamed the Sudan Defence Force acting under the government, replacing the former garrison of Egyptian army soldiers, saw action afterwards during the Wal Wal Incident. The Wafdist parliamentary majority had rejected Sarwat Pasha's accommodation plan with Austen Chamberlain in London; Cairo still needed the money. The Sudan Government's revenue had reached a peak in 1928 at £6.6 million, the Wafdist disruptions, Italian borders incursions from Somaliland, London decided to reduce expenditure during the Great Depression. Cotton and Gum exports were dwarfed by the necessity to import almost everything from Britain leading to a balance of payments deficit at Khartoum.

done Check

Sudan. Retrieved July, 2017 from