Connectors as Subordinators

You will study how to connect a dependent clause to an independent one.


Connectors as Subordinators

Sudanese people

Instructions: Read the text. Look at the words in bold.

In Sudan’s 2008 census, the population of Northern, Western and Eastern Sudan was recorded to be over 30 million. This puts present estimates of the population of Sudan after the secession of South Sudan at a little over 30 million people. This is a significant increase over the past two decades as the 1983 census put the total population of Sudan, that includes present-day South Sudan, at 21.6 million.

Despite being a refugee-generating country, Sudan also hosts a refugee population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 310,500 refugees and asylum seekers lived in Sudan in 2007. The majority of this population came from Eritrea, Chad, Ethiopia and the Central African Republic.

Sudan. Retrieved and adapted July, 2017 from

Getting started: Ethnic groups

Instructions: Read the text to do the activity suggested.

The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population. Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians, Zaghawa and Copts.

Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. Sudanese Arabs are almost entirely Muslims. The majority of Arabized and indigenous tribes show less cultural integration because of cultural, linguistic and genealogical variations with other Arab and Arabized Tribes.

Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian Peninsula and intermarriages with the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, especially the Nubian people, who also share a common history with Egypt.

The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century, intermarried with the indigenous Nubian and other African populations and introduced Islam.

Sudan consists of numerous other non-Arabic groups.

Sudan. Retrieved and adapted July, 2017 from

The Arab presence

Instructions: Choose T(true) or F (false) for the following statements.

The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population that is over 30 million.

Sudan has 400 groups that speak over 597 different languages and dialects.

Sudanese muslims are almost entirely Arabs that descend from the Arabian Peninsule.

The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated in the 12 th century to increase interethnic marriage.

Let’s learn Connectors as Subordinators.

Instructions: Read about Connectors as Subordinators.

As a subordinator, a connector:

  1. Expresses no particular meaning.
  2. Functions as a marker that subordinates a clause to the main clause.
  3. Takes form as:
    • that before a declarative clause: My best friend says that she likes walking.
    • whether or if before a yes-no question (closed interrogative) clause:
      • My father asked whether / if we could go to the doctor with him tomorrow.
    • to before a bare (plain) form verb in an infinitival clause:
      • I wish to walk tomorrow.
    • for before a noun or accusative (obj) pronoun before an infinitival clause:
      • My mother wishes for us to walk tomorrow.



Sudanese Arabs

Instructions: Fill in the gaps with “to” or “that”.

Sudanese Arabs,  are predominantly Muslim, are the majority population of Sudan. Most of them speak the Sudanese Arabic dialect. The population of Sudan also includes various tribes, are genealogically Arab, such as the Shaigya, Ja'alin, Shukria, Guhayna, etc. (according Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, the Bedouins of the eastern desert of Sudan, such as the Ja'alin are almost indistinguishable from the Bedouins of eastern Arabia).

Additionally, other smaller Sudanese groups, have also been Arabized, or partially Arabized, but retain a separate, non-Arab identity, include the Nubians, Copts, and Beja.

done Check


Regional variation

Instructions: Drag and drop “that” or “to” into the appropriate gaps.


1. While most Sudanese Arabs speak some form of Sudanese Arabic, some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like the Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes _____ speak Najdi Arabic and the Bani Hassan, Al-Ashraf and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic.

2. In addition, Western province tribes like the Baggara and Darfurians) speak Chadian Arabic, although they have great variation in cultural and genealogy aspects Sudanese Arabs descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian Peninsula and some of the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, most predominantly the Nubian people _____ also share a common history with Egypt.

3. In addition, a few Arabian tribes existed in Sudan prior _____ the advent of Islam. Nevertheless, most Arab tribes migrated into the Sudan in the 12th century and introduced Islam.


Sudanese Arabic

Instructions: Make sentences with the following words.

grammatical and dialectical featuresin the 12th centuryThe Arabic spoken in Sudan still largely maintainedthat introduced from the Arabian Peninsula similar to
is a form of pure or "archaic Arabic" As a result,Sudanese Arabicfor Sudanese people,
that of its neighbor, Egypt among other features, This,spoken in Sudan fromserves to distinguish the Arabic