Reason and cause connectors

You will study Reason and cause connectors.


Reason and cause connectors


Instructions: Read the text. Look at the words in bold.

Why are you studying about Sudan?

Because I have to talk about its location tomorrow morning. Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in north-east Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa. The River NIle divides the country into Eastern and western halves. Its predominant religion is Islam.

Sudan. Retrieved and adapted July, 2017 from

Getting started: Ancient civilizations

Instructions: Read the text to do the activity suggested.

Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC. By virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East in as much as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language (earliest records dating to the 9th century). Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa (after Algeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and also the third largest country in the Arab world (after Algeria and Saudi Arabia).

Sudan. Retrieved and adapted July, 2017 from

Many kingdoms

Instructions: Choose T (true) or F (false) for the following statements.

Sudan was home to the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others along the Nile.

Sudan was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th.

Sudan was the smallest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011.

In the same year, South Sudan separated into an independent country from an independence referendum.

Sudan is now the third richest country in Africa.

Let’s learn about Reason and Cause connectors.

Instructions: Read about Reason and Cause connectors.

  • A connector is a word that joins a word, phrase or clause to another one. A connector is also called a “conjunction”.
  • A connector takes form as a coordinator (and, but, or); as a subordinator (that, whether, if, to, for), or a preposition (because, though, before, after, since, when, if, unless, as, than)
  • Look at the following reason and cause connectors
    • Because, as, since, seeing that:
      • Because / as / since / seeing that it’s late, we should go home.
    • Because of, on account of, owing to, due to:
      • Because of / on account of / owing to / due to the weather, we stayed at home.
    • In order to, so as to, to:
      • She uses her video in order to / so as to / to record TV programmes.


Islamic law

Instructions: Drag and drop the connectors to the appropriate gaps of the next paragraph.

due to so as tobecause ofsince

Sudan is an important african country ___________ it is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as an observer in the World Trade Organization. But also, ___________ its capital, Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. And ___________ its  federal presidential representative democratic republic. The politics of Sudan is regulated by a parliamentary organization called the National Assembly. ___________ the Sudanese legal system based on Islamic law.

Sudan. Retrieved and adapted July, 2017 from



Instructions: Make logical positive sentences with the following prompts.

In account of because ofasbecause

1. There had been religious problems ___________ the conflicts in the Southern Kordofan region.

2. Conflicts have arisen too ___________ the Nuba people see themselves as ‘African’ rather than Arab.

3. Religion is also a problem ___________ many groups retain their traditional African culture and follow animist beliefs in spirits.

4. ___________ over three- quarters of people in Sudan follow the Islamic faith and most are Sunni Muslims.


Sudanese people

Instructions: Fill in the gaps with the appropriate connector (as, due to or because of).

Demographically too there exists a broad distinction between the northern and southern parts of the Sudan. Ethnicity is difficult to trace outright in the modern Sudan generations of intermarriage between various indigenous and immigrant groups. The definition of the actual Sudanese is very hard to establish the existence of broad groupings – for example, Hamitic, Nilotic, Negoid, and Arab.

Nonetheless, the northern parts of the country appear at first glance to be ‘Arabicized’ in terms of cultural outlook, they are usually Arabic speakers, with a number of important exceptions, such as the Nubians in the north and the Beja people in the east. Northern Sudanese are almost wholly Muslim (though again there are exceptions, such as the enclave in the Nuba Mountains where Christianity and traditional African religions are practiced).

In contrast, the south contains the great majority of the 570-plus recorded Sudanese tribes; very few, if any, of these people are Muslim or claim Arab descent, and although the south has seen some degree of Arabicization and Islamicization, the process was restrained during the condominium period, when western missionaries effected a limited Christianization of the region as part of the ‘Southern Policy’.

done Check