Sentence connectors

You will study how to join two clauses in a sentence.


Sentence connectors

The Underground Railroad

Imagen: "Routes of the Underground Railroad 1830-1865", Wilbur H. Siebert (1898), Wikimedia Commons.

Instructions: Read the text about the Underground Railroad. Look at the words in bold.

The Underground Railroad, a vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals – many whites but predominently black – who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year –according to one estimate, the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850.

An organized system to assist runaway slaves seems to have begun towards the end of the 18th century. In 1786 George Washington complained about how one of his runaway slaves was helped by a “society of Quaker, formed for such purposes.” The system grew, and around 1831 it was dubbed “The Underground Railroad,” after the then emerging steam railroads. The system even used terms used in railroading: the homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat were called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters,” those who contributed money or goods were “stockholders,” and the “conductor” was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next.

The Underground Railroad. Retrieved October, 2016 from

Getting started: The slave

Instructions: Read the text, then do the activity suggested.

For the slave, running away to the North was anything but easy. The first step was to escape from the slaveholder. For many slaves, this meant relying on his or her own resources. Sometimes a “conductor,” posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward. The fugitives would move at night. They would generally travel between 10 and 20 miles to the next station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.

The fugitives would also travel by train and boat –conveyances that sometimes had to be paid for. Money was also needed to improve the appearance of the runaways—a black man, woman, or child in tattered clothes would invariably attract suspicious eyes.

This money was donated by individuals and also raised by various groups, including vigilance committees.

The Underground Railroad. Retrieved October, 2016 from

The fugitive

Instructions: Choose T (true) or F (False) for the following statements.

It was difficult for the fugitive to escape from slaveholders and get to the North.

Sometimes they were helped by a “conductor”, however there were many risks.

The slave would move at any hour of the day but exceptionally at night.

They would travel an average of 15 miles and sometimes they had to cross more than one station.

Sometimes they had to pay for travelling by train or boat.

Let’s study four sentence connectors.

Instructions: Read the information about some sentence connectors.

When we write a paragraph, we can link ideas using sentence connectors.

  • Use and to express addition or sequence between two ideas or events.
  • Example: last week he visited a museum and he went to the theater.

  • Use but to express contrast between two ideas.
  • Example: Yesterday I went to the movies but I didn’t eat any popcorn.

  • Use because to indicate the cause of a fact or event.
  • Example: I can’t get in because I lost my keys.

  • Use so to indicate a consequence.
  • Example: They were hungry so they took a break to eat something.


The slave trade

Instructions: Choose the correct sentence connectors to complete the text.

The American slave trade was an international business. It began in Western Africa continued in permanent and improvised slave markets in the United States. Slavers took about half a million Africans away from their homes shipped them to the New World. Slaves worked in the fields or as servants, often under brutal conditions. By the end of the eighteenth century, people began to campaign against slavery, the slavers opposed for a long time.

done Check


And, but, because, so

Instructions: Match the two parts of the sentences.

a) and invited her to a nice restaurant.

b) a month later she lost her job.

c) he didn’t go.

d) I lost my ticket.

e) they went to the beach.

f) he wanted to see the statue of Liberty.

g) learned to play basketball.

1. I won the lottery but

2. John planned a vacation but he got sick, so

3. On Valentine’s day Jack gave his girlfriend a present

4. Jane bought a new car but

5. They wanted to swim so

6. This holiday Mark went to New York because

7. During summer camp Lisa played football and

done Check


Vigilance committees

Instructions: Choose the best option for the following sentences:

Vigilance committees sprang up in the larger towns and / so cities of the North, most prominently in New York, Philadelphia, and Boston but / and not Texas. In addition to soliciting money, the organizations provided food, lodging also / and money, and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.

The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, besides / and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trip into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom.

done Check